Once upon a time, long ago, there existed a vast and magical empire, ruled by money and power and fueled by imagination, talent

and ambition. This magical place was not a work of fiction and its location was not a far away mountain top or a remote tropical

island. It was found in Culver City, California and was known through out the world as Metro-Goldwyn Mayer Studios.               

Through the M-G-M gates passed the greatest stars of filmdom from the Silent Era (Buster Keaton, Lon Chaney, Ramon Novarro,

John Gilbert, Norma Shearer, Greta Garbo, and Marion Davies) to the Golden Era, (Jean Harlow, Joan Crawford, Clark Gable, Lana


Turner, James Stewart, Judy Garland, Mickey Rooney, Hedy Lamarr, Fred Astaire, Ava Gardner and Elizabeth Taylor)

and beyond (Debbie Reynolds, Glenn Ford, Rod Taylor, Elvis Presley, George Hamilton, and Doris Day).                                    

The finest creative artists of show business, the world’s most beautiful women, kings and queens, presidents and princes, titans of

    industry, the great and the near-great from all nations and generations of movie lovers from around the world found their way to this

     Movieland institution.

          As the premiere movie factory, M-G-M Studios was a self-sufficient, self proclaimed “city within a city” built on six separate lots and

      spread across 185 fenced and gated acres. The controllers of this motion picture empire were located at the east end of Lot 1 in the

       Irving G. Thalberg building, named after the head of production responsible for most of M-G-M’s early success. Its 235 offices housed

       additional studio executives, directors, writers, producers, and the Legal and Story Departments. Here as many as 7,000 books, plays

       and stories were read annually, with half a million synopses of story material on file. From his infamous all white office, studio          

         executive Louis B. Mayer                                                                                                                                                 

negotiated contracts and controlled studio expenditures. His power and influence could turn a new discovery into a star or turn a 

troublesome star into a has-been.                                                                                                                                  

     The 44 acres of Lot 1 were the center of activity and contained most of the studio’s 195 permanent buildings. These included

production support offices, a commissary, barbershop, fan mail department, publicity department,  28 sound stages, laboratories,



still photography studio, performance stage, casting department, sound facilities, and technical buildings, special effects 

department, miniatures department, camera and light department, neon studio and scores of other departments essential to the

production and manufacture of motion pictures.

    The industrial center of the studio consisted of carpenters' shops, a lumber mill, plaster and plastic shop, foundry, machine

shops, blacksmith shop, florist, upholstering shop and nearly everything else used or needed for motion picture production. M-G-M

even operated its own railroad and spur line to ensure regular delivery of trainloads of lumber and other supplies to keep the movie

factory humming.



    The library within M-G-M’s Music Department had approximately four million selections, ranking it behind only the Library of

Congress and the New York Public Library to make it the third largest music library in the world.

     The Casting Office handled as many as 12,000 calls in a day. The Research Department averaged up to 500 fact-checking

questions a day to insure authenticity in scripts, costume and set  design.
A huge modern film laboratory processed an average of

four-and-one-half million feet of film per week and consumed up to 300,000 gallons of water per day supplied by the studio’s three

artesian wells.
The Property Department was the world’s largest and maintained more than 1,000,000 items from every country

and historical period, providing anything from a mantel clock to a full-sized locomotive, row boats to horse drawn buggies,

antique furniture and crystal chandelier to medieval swords and machine guns.
The M-G-M Makeup Department was run by

Jack Dawn and later, by Academy Award recipient William Tuttle. These artists could alter the appearance of an actor or actress,

making them appear young or old, enhancing or hiding their unique facial features, or even changing their race. The Makeup

Department had the capacity to meet the make up requirements of up to 1,200 actors an hour and could handle as many as

12,000 in a single day. The Art Department, headed by the legendary Academy Award winning art director Cedric Gibbons, was

renowned for producing the most lavish and detailed sets that served to create M-G-M’s indelible association with wealth and class.

And with the enormous resources of the studio, M-G-M’s historical period exterior and interior sets were considered the best by

industry standards.
As many as 100,000 yards of fabric and other materials were cut annually in the Wardrobe Department which had

15 warehouses, housing 150,000 costumes representing nearly every historical period. Here the fashion designer Adrian supplied the

style for M-G-M’s biggest female stars. This department could equip as many as 5,000 actors and extras in a single day. The 22

screening rooms operated by the Projection Department ran enough film every day to provide prints to 40 exhibitors.
At its peak in

the mid-1940’s, M-G-M employed as many as 4,000 people and utilized more skilled technical help than any other form

of manufacturing with 117 arts, professions and vocations and organized into 38 departments. The Studio Club, an employee support

group, had over 3,000 members.
To maintain security and internal control, as well as deter the starry-eyed gate crashers and

Hollywood hopefuls, M-G-M supported its own 100 member Police Department headed by Chief W.P. Hendry. For decades, the officer

stationed at the main gate was named Kenny Hollywood.

      The studio operators handled a switchboard with 2,400 extensions and routed thousands of calls a day. The annual electricity

used by the studio and supplied by the studio’s own electrical plant, would light over 25,000 homes.



       Across Overland Avenue to the west from Lot 1 was Lot 2. This 37-acre parcel was purchased specifically for studio expansion

and some of the first films to use it were King Vidor’s “The Big Parade” (1925) and “Quality Street” (1927). Many of the standing sets

from the early backlot built on the west end of Lot 1 were moved here to form “Waterfront Street.” The prison set from “The Big

House” (1930) was built here, as was “New England Street,” a curved street of well maintained, middle class homes used extensively

throughout the “Andy Hardy” series. The swimming pool, stables and mansion from “The Young Philadelphians” (1940), the exterior

Chinese set from “Green Dolphin Street” (1947) and the “Verona Square” set from “Romeo and Juliet” (1936) where among the many

others built here.


  The Animation Department where

cartoon characters “Tom and Jerry,”

“Droopy,” and “Barney the Bear” were

drawn and filmed was located in a

streamlined building on the northeast

corner of Lot 2. The team of Hanna and

Barbera honed their cartooning craft here.


During the late1950’s, a young Hollywood

hopeful named Jack Nicholson worked

as an errand boy in this department and

received his introduction to a business and

a industry in which he would later become

a legendary figure.


      Eight blocks to the south at the intersection of Overland Avenue and Jefferson Boulevard was Lot 3, a 65-acre parcel where

even more elaborate exterior sets were built and maintained. These included the “Jungle Island” for the Tarzan series that was at the

southern end of a 63,000,000 gallon M-G-M made lake that was used effectively in “Show Boat” (1953) and “The Adventures of

Huckleberry Finn” (1960). At the north end of the lake, a cluster of Colonial style commercial building called “Salem Waterfront” was

built and seen in films including “All the Brothers Were Valiant” (1953) and “Plymouth Adventure” (1953).
Most studio backlots

would have had at most one western street façade, but not M-G-M. They had three. A prosperous and
established town called

“ Western Street,” a deserted and faded “Ghost Town” and a frontier town called “Billy the Kid Street”.

Also found on Lot 3 was “Dutch Street” built for “Seven Sweethearts” (1942) and featured a lake and stone bridge. To the north of

that set was a giant poured concrete processing tank with a massive painted sky background used for filming large scale miniature

ships first used for “Mutiny on the Bounty” (1935). All of these were permanent standing sets that were used over and over again,

altered, redressed, repainted and shot from multiple angles. They represented a realistic, yet cinematically stylized portrayal of nearly

every place on earth. And by utilizing these sets year after year, movie after movie the studio’s production costs were greatly

reduced while giving studio management the opportunity to keep a close eye on the set. Spread around this Lot were 15 humming

refrigerated film vaults to preserve the factory’s pricy product.

                                                                           LOT 4-5-6

The other three lots were located across the street on Jefferson Boulevard. The studio zoo was once located on Lot 4 where, at

various times for numerous movies, lions, elephants, monkeys and dogs all found a home while waiting for their close-ups. In addition

to the animal cages, pens, bungalow and a performance ring in the center of it all. The majority of the 5.4 acres of this lot was

used for Lot 3 parking.
The 7.8 acres of Lot 5 was south of Lot 3 and was used as the studio “bone yard” and featured all aspects of

including wagon wheels, axels, circus carts, and sections of and parts for trains, planes and automobiles. The

southeastern border of
the lot contained horse stables with stalls for more than 25 horses where Louis B. Mayer and Fred Astaire kept

their revolving collections of Thoroughbreds. To keep these champions in top shape there were 2 large and 3 small corrals with Tack

shed and barn
Lot 6 was kitty corner from Lot 5 and its 6 acres contained the studio nursery where plants, exotic trees, shrubs and

flowers were grown for interior and exterior sets as well as studio landscaping. Here M-G-M even had the necessary facilities to grow

their own grass sod!

                                                                       A “City Within a City” Indeed!

     Throughout its history, M-G-M was the premiere Hollywood studio, with top grossing pictures that lead the industry with both

Oscar nominations and wins. The company motto was “Do it Right, Do it Big, Give it Class” and as long as the money kept pouring in,

they did just that. But by the late 1940’s, the empire was developing cracks in the ample foundation. In 1947, an Anti Trust decree

divorced studios from their theatre chains, which had a drastic effect on profits. Moreover, movie attendance started to drop

dramatically; post war audiences' tastes were changing, and early television programming encouraged former regular paying movie

patrons to stay at home and be entertained for free. Soon, what had been an almost sure thing at the box office became an ever-

increasing game of chance.

     During the 1950’s, M-G-M’s profit/loss charts resembled a roller coaster ride, with just one or two hits keeping the studio afloat.

There was even talk of real estate developments on all the backlots. And to add insult to injury, Culver City officials began to grouse

that the land M-G-M owned and occupied could be better suited for uses that would generate more property tax. By the early 1960’s

the very assets that had made MGM the biggest and best had become enormous liabilities. With huge overhead expenses and box

office receipts more miss than hit, the red ink ran and ran.
In the late sixties, new buyers emerged for the studio, but they were

more interested in the perceived easy money of Las Vegas
casinos than the movie-making gamble of Hollywood. Studio assets were

sold at wholesale prices to halt the bleeding and to raise
money for the new MGM Grand Hotel. Every prop and costume that could be

carried or carted was dispensed of at an 18 day public
auction. And what didn’t sell at auction was sold for pennies on the pound.

What wasn’t sold, like M-G-M massive collection of neon signs, were bulldozed and buried in a landfill.

      The fabulous backlots were in fact finally sold off for real estate development. Now tract houses and apartments would replace

those once wondrous lands of make believe. What had been the greatest of all movie studios was now reduced to an empty shell.

With the ever-changing fluctuation in global finances and ever-increasing sources of entertainment, and never ending advances in

computer technology, the likelihood of such a magical empire ever being built again is highly improbable. Perhaps Frank Sinatra put it

best in a line from the film “That’s Entertainment”, “You can wait around and hope, but I tell you, you’ll never see the likes of this

                                                             But all is not lost!

      Now, for the first time ever, this lost world of wonder has been rediscovered. After 12 years of research, interviews, photo

collecting, screenings and writing, you too will have a chance to experience the majesty of this vanished institution of Hollywood’s

motion picture industry. Much like archeologists uncovering a long lost civilization and unveiling it for all the world to see, now the lost

empire of M-G-M has been reconstructed in book form by its authors.
This book, “M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot will take the

reader on a comprehensive tour into this wondrous world of movie making magic.

      By combining photos, maps and archival information, this book brings it all back to life from cover to cover. This is the closest

movie lover or student of film can get to relive the romance of the classic M-G-M without having had the good fortune of working

there or at least knowing someone who did. By the time the reader is finished with this book they will have a complete understanding

of why the studio was know as “the Tiffanys" of all the studios within the industry itself.

A Lavish Illustrated History of Hollywood’s Greatest Movie Studio

The book features many exclusives:

·Over 350 never before published photos and illustrations of the studio, stages and the backlot sets
(including many from Marc Wanamaker's Bison Archives) http://bisonarchives.com

·Never before published maps of Lot 1, Lot 2 and Lot 3 that put the photos in their proper context
and take the reader on a  “ virtual” tour.

·Exclusive never published interviews with Richard Anderson and Betty Garrett and including the last interviews with Hollywood’s Master of Make-Up and long time M-G-M employee, William Tuttle and Robert Nudelman, the preservation activist who valiantly tried to save Lot 2 from demolition.

·An extensive list of the M-G-M titles that matches the films with the backlot sets utilized during their

Here is your chance to take a trip to these magical lands of make believe. It’s the perfect book for all movie lovers, serious students of film, architecture enthusiasts, and hopeless romantics. And last but not least, it’s guaranteed to reignite the childlike sense of wonder that lives in us all.

            THE REVIEWS ARE IN!

  " For anyone who has ever dreamed what it was like to live in the Golden Age of Hollywood, this visit to my grandfather's studio will vividly re-create the experience.

     From hometown USA to eightenth century France to medieval England to a village in China, the memories of all the great films that were made there will spring back to life."

Daniel Mayer Selznick


“This book reflects the truth about M-G-M’S backlot. I ought to know–
I spent many hours there” –

Debbie Reynolds

"Under contract for six years in twenty four films...seeing this extraordinary
new book of photos and commentary...took me and will take you on a journey where Louis B. Mayer's"More Stars Then Their Are In Heaven" acted on the magnificent grounds and sets of "M-G-M's Five Back Lots"

Richard Anderson

“Reading this was like being there. I know. I was there.”

Clint Eastwood
Leonard maltin

“What a cornucopia of valuable behind-the-scenes information and rare photos. I’ve got one word to describe this book: irresistible.”

Leonard Maltin
Angela Landsbury

"The first ten films I made for MGM changed my life. Now, you can go back in time as I have in the pages of this remarkable book, learning how and where the Land of Make Believe became real. Once you take the journey, you, too will be transported. "

Angela Lansbury

Robert Vaughn

  "I've read many books about Hollywood over the years and this is by far the best."

Robert Vaughn

"This book, 'MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot' brought back a lot of wonderful memories, many scenes from the original 'Time Machine' were shot there, Yvette Mimieux and I spent many long working hours at the old backlot."

Rod Taylor

"What an achievement! Having spent a great deal of time on the backlot myself, this book brought forth so many memories. The description of the last days of MGM is brilliantly done, and the list of films shot on the various sets is incredible. All in all, it’s a spectacular project!"

Kevin Brownlow

Jennifer Niven Become a fan
Author, "Becoming Clementine"
8 Books That Will Transport You To Old Hollywood
Posted: 07/31/2014 8:17 am EDT Updated: 07/31/2014 8:59 am EDT Print Article

     I spent one unforgettable afternoon in the home of Gene Kelly when I was thirteen. Ever since, I've loved Old Hollywood ferociously -- the glamour, the scandals, the movie stars, the movies themselves, the beauty and even the brutality of a city built too fast, too big, too grand for its own good. I long for a time machine to take me back to the Hollywood of the 1920s, 30s, or 40s. I want to meet those stars, watch those movies being filmed, press my own hands and feet into wet concrete outside Grauman's Chinese Theatre, feel the burn of the klieg lights on my skin, dance all night at Café Trocadero with Errol Flynn or Cary Grant.

     In lieu of building an actual time machine (I was always terrible at science), I've collected some 200 titles on the golden days of this movie mecca, from coffee table books to anthologies of costume design to memoirs of directors/producers/writers, to biographies and autobiographies of stars and also the places they inhabited -- Ciro's, the Cocoanut Grove, Bullocks Wilshire Department Store, Hollywood itself. While I'd love to share all 200, here are eight of the best.

     Harlow in Hollywood by Darrell Rooney and Mark A. Vieira Jean Harlow was the first big-screen sex symbol, the Platinum Blonde, adored by everyone she worked with--from Clark Gable to Louis B. Mayer. Her mother babied her, many say controlled her. Her second husband, director Paul Bern, died mysteriously, and there were rumors that she killed him. Harlow herself died tragically and too soon, but this pictorial biography brings her to life again in gorgeous black and white. Featuring hundreds of rare photographs, including studio portraits and never-before-seen candids, Harlow has never been more platinum or more lovely. The photos themselves would be enough, but as a nice bonus the book also features a compelling biography of the star's charmed yet turbulent life, making it that rare coffee table book you want to look at and read from cover to cover.

      My Wicked, Wicked Ways by Errol Flynn Sexy. Wild. Epic. Tragic. Exciting. This is one of my desert island books because it's such terrific company. The swashbuckler Flynn played onscreen was nothing compared to the swashbuckler he was in real life. With humor and humility, swagger and sensitivity, he recounts his childhood in Tasmania, his soldier-of-fortune years in the South Seas, his stint as a Cuban newspaper correspondent alongside Fidel Castro's rebels, and the days he spent in glimmering, immoral Hollywood -- not to mention the ex-wives, love affairs, and that infamous rape trial of 1943. Flynn spills it all, and spins a few tales in the process, so that you never know whether what he's telling you is true or not. Either way, it's the best autobiography I've ever read, every bit as colorful and charismatic as Flynn himself.

      Tinseltown by William J. Mann Silent film director William Desmond Taylor was murdered in 1922. Powder burns indicated he was shot at close range, but the circumstances surrounding his death -- including who might have pulled the trigger--remain fuzzy. Anyone might have done it: the three young actresses who both used him and loved him, his devoted valet, an overprotective stage mother, a gang of criminals... The crime shook Hollywood, even as Adolph Zukor, Taylor's boss at Paramount Pictures, scrambled to cover it up. The author claims to have solved the crime here, but I, for one, am reading for the Roaring Twenties, and the scandal, ambition, and intrigue of a dangerous and glamorous young city.

      MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, once the largest and most glamorous movie studio in the world, is now owned by Sony. The acres of famed backlots, left to decay and ruin in the 1970s, are gone. Spencer Tracy, who read the eulogy at studio chief Louis B. Mayer's funeral in 1957, said, "All the rest is history. The shining epoch of the industry passes with him." The only place now to see the glorious Metro of then is inside the pages of this book. MGM lives on in extraordinary photo after photo of the studio and its stars, as well as in the maps, engaging text -- including a forward by Debbie Reynolds -- and behind-the-scenes stories of some of your favorite motion pictures.

      Ava Gardner: Love is Nothing by Lee Server Ava Gardner was a North Carolina farm girl who was discovered by the movies when her brother-in-law displayed her photo in the window of his photography studio. Outspoken, temperamental, and uninhibited, Ava was never the best actress, but she was definitely one of the most dazzling. It wasn't just her beauty, it was the charismatic personality, the fact that she almost always stayed true to that farm girl self, whether it meant refusing to let MGM hide the cleft in her chin, or answering Howard Hughes' marriage proposal with a sock to the jaw. She was tumultuously married to Mickey Rooney, Artie Shaw, and -- by all accounts the love of her life -- Frank Sinatra. Author Lee Server, who also penned the wonderful Robert Mitchum: Baby I Don't Care, both informs and entertains as he recounts an epically exciting life.

      The Story of Hollywood: An Illustrated History by Gregory Paul Williams Featuring over 800 images from the author's own collection, this beautiful and comprehensive (to put it mildly) coffee table book traces the history of Hollywood from 1850 to the present. It's both a handy, quick reference and a fascinating in-depth record, depending on how much time you have to spend with it, and unlike most sweeping histories, there's plenty of detail to sink your teeth into. As Leonard Maltin says, "Other books have traced the history of moviemaking in Los Angeles and the cultural history of Hollywood, but this ambitious and handsome new volume is the most thorough examination of the town itself I've ever seen."

      I, Fatty by Jerry Stahl For those who don't know, Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle was one of the biggest (no pun intended) stars of the 1920s. As Booklist observes, his was a "rags-to-riches-to-rags story." That story gets a fictional retelling here, with Fatty as narrator, although the author sticks to the facts of the comedian's life -- the heroin addiction, the wild parties, and, most famously, the party that led to accusations of rape and murder, which resulted in the most sensational trial of the decade. Arbuckle was most likely innocent, but it ruined him and his career. I, Fatty takes us through the highs and lows of Hollywood and one man's journey there, and is at once poignant and bawdy, harrowing and heartbreaking.

      My Autobiography by Charles Chaplin There's a reason Chaplin has endured -- his genius is as recognized and appreciated now as it was when he was first making films in 1914. The Little Tramp came from hardscrabble roots to become the biggest star in the world. His autobiography was first published in 1964, and it's all in there: his impoverished childhood in Victorian England, his first appearance on a stage (at the age of five), the death of his alcoholic father, the struggles with his mentally ill mother, his early career in music halls, his many loves -- some more controversial than others -- and, of course, his work. Written with the same tough and lovely beauty that haunts his films, My Autobiography is much more than the title promises -- the honest, unapologetic, revealing story of one of the most gifted artists in cinema history.
Jennifer Niven is the author of American Blonde [Plume, $16.00].
Follow Jennifer Niven on Twitter: www.twitter.com/JenniferNiven
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MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot
by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan

Edited by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan,
foreword by Debbie Reynolds Santa Monica, $34.95 (312p) ISBN 978-1-59580-055-8

MGM backlot aerial photo. (Marc Wanamaker, Bison Archives)

" The world probably will not see anything quite like it again," concedes talk show host Dick Cavett about the Culver City home to some of the 20th century’s most renowned and respected actors, actresses, screenwriters, and artists. A production company in its truest sense, the eventual 1924 merger of Metro, Goldwyn, and Mayer pioneered an assembly-line approach to filmmaking and initial profits paved the way for the introduction of sound stages and innovations in set design, special effects, and many other aspects of film production. Chapters are sub-divided into "Lots"--as was the MGM site itself--and readers are transported into a bygone era through candid b&w photographs, lucid commentaries, testimonials, and anecdotes that bestow a behind-the-scenes experience.
  But the tale had a darker side as well: cracks were showing in the pristine veneer and the editors aptly include the studio’s undignified demise amidst squandered assets and disillusioned takeover attempts.
   Film-buffs, historians, sociologists, and economists will swoon at the intricacy and insider information here; detailed balance sheets of frequently over-blown production budgets are even included. Readers will be educated, inspired, and enthralled by this handsome book. Photos. (Feb.)
Permalink: http://www.publishersweekly.com/978-1-59580-055-8


Vintage MGM - A nostalgic look at the Culver City studio is provided in the book 'MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot.'

MGM backlot aerial photo. (Marc Wanamaker,
Bison Archives)

MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot ," a new coffee-table book from Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester and Michael Troyan, offers a nostalgic look at the sound stages and expansive outdoor sets of the famed Culver City studio that boasted of having more stars than are in the heavens. Besides interviews with folks who worked there — including a foreword by Debbie Reynolds — the book features hundreds of rare photographs that illustrate MGM's status as the dream factory.

Copyright © 2011, Los Angeles Times


MGM backlot aerial photo. (Marc Wanamaker, Bison Archives)

MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot
by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan

     One of the most pleasant benefits of running a book review blog is getting free books, mostly pre-pub review copies but a few published editions as well. Authors, publicists, and publishers offer me titles almost every week. I say "no thanks" more often than not because the titles do not interest me. I suspect many of these book advocates do not bother to check the blog to see what kinds of books I read, for I am declining steamy romances, conspiracy thrillers, and miracle diet books with regularity. When I do accept a book, such as a biography or a history, I caution the giver that I will only review it if I enjoy it. The latest such book is MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan, a big photo book celebrating the history of movie making.
As the title suggests, Bingen and company's book is more about the MGM maze of sets and soundstages than actors, directors, producers, and studio executives, though they all come into the story as well. Through maps and historic photos, the authors take readers on an extensive tour of MGM lots One (44 acres), Two (37 acres), and Three (65 acres), where they estimate twenty percent of America's 20th century feature films were made, including the Andy Hardy and Tarzan series, the beloved MGM musicals Meet Me in St. Louis, The Wizard of Oz and Singin' in the Rain, and the aquatic films of Esther Williams, as well as TV series, such as The Twilight Zone and The Man from U.N.C.L.E. The authors show how the flat lots of Culver City, California were made into the streets of New York, Western frontier towns, African jungles, and ancient Rome. The authors also identify and describe all of the administrative and support staff buildings. There were luxurious dressing rooms for the stars, a cafeteria with Mrs. Mayer's own chicken noodle soup, and endless prop departments. I particularly liked learning about the research department, which was a library with 20,000 books and a 250,000 item clipping file. The irony here is that a team of researchers would report the facts, and then the producers would play fast with history for the sake of story anyhow. I also liked learning about the combined newsstand/barbershop where the barbers sang four-part harmony. In some ways, it really was a magical place.What happened to it all? In the final twenty-four pages, the authors recount the slow dismantling of the MGM empire, highlighting executive errors in judgment in script selection, bad contracts with outside firms, and money-losing real estate deals. No one seemed to have a clear vision after Louis B. Mayer was dethroned. The MBAs who held more sway than career filmmakers essentially gave the assets away. Even when Universal Studios discovered that tourists would line up to take historic studio tours, MGM executives remained determined to bulldoze over fifty years of set building. Sadly, housing developments cover most of the land today.I know several movie buffs who will enjoy MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot and am putting this copy into our library collection. Other public libraries should consider it, too. Bingen, Steven.
MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot. Santa Monica Press, 2011. ISBN 9781595800558.


MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot
by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan
-   from TCM.com

MGM backlot aerial photo. (Marc Wanamaker, Bison Archives)

MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot is the illustrated history of the soundstages and outdoor sets where Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer produced many of the world's most famous films.
During its Golden Age, the studio employed the likes of Garbo, Astaire, and Gable, and produced innumerable iconic pieces of cinema such as The Wizard of Oz, Singin' in the Rain, and Ben-Hur. It is estimated that a fifth of all films made in the United States prior to the 1970s were shot at MGM studios.
All of this happened behind closed doors, the backlot shut off from the public in a veil of secrecy and movie magic. MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot highlights this fascinating film treasure by recounting the history, popularity, and success of the MGM company through a tour of its physical property.
Featuring the candid, exclusive voices and photographs from the people who worked there, and including hundreds of rare and unpublished photographs, readers are launched aboard a fun and entertaining virtual tour of Hollywood's most famous and mysterious motion picture studio.
Product Details: Format: Cloth/hardcover
Publication Date: February 2011 - Publisher: Santa Monica Press



New And Notable Film Books

MGM backlot aerial photo. (Marc Wanamaker, Bison Archives)

One might think that by this time, every conceivable film-related topic has been covered in book form…but the newest releases prove that this isn’t so. Perhaps the most unusual, and exciting, addition to the library of movie books is M-G-M: HOLLYWOOD’S GREATEST BACKLOT by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan, with a foreword by MGM veteran Debbie Reynolds (Santa Monica Press). As the authors explain in their Introduction, “Our purpose in producing this book is not to discuss the films that MGM produced. That particular road has been well traveled elsewhere. Our interest here is not in the product at all, but rather the factory responsible for that product. Our goal is to preserve, in print and in memory, if not in brock and mortar, the actual physical place that was once Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for the first time.”
Once you start leafing through this beautifully-produced volume, you won’t be able to stop. The authors have traced the history of the M-G-M lot with equal measures of thoroughness and panache.

This is much more than a collection of behind-the-scenes photos: it is a guided tour inside the walls of a magical kingdom, building by building, street by street, peppered with quotes from people who worked there over the years. From scene storage to the fabled Little Red Schoolhouse, from the standing sets to the backlot jungle and lake, this is a closeup look at Hollywood’s most prestigious studio from its earliest days through the television era.

Leonard Maltin


Book takes readers on tour of MGM's legendary studios
Published Monday, Mar. 28, 2011

MGM backlot aerial photo. (Marc Wanamaker, Bison Archives)

As last week's death of Elizabeth Taylor reminded us, the Golden Age of Hollywood can never be repeated. But an informed, nostalgic visit is possible in the pages of "M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot" by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester and Michael Troyan (Santa Monica Press, $34.95, 312 pages).
" It was a 10-year project – longer when you consider I've been an MGM buff since childhood," said Troyan, who is the community relations manager for the Barnes & Noble bookstore in Citrus Heights.
This is the definitive take on what was once the world's premier movie studio. It was torn down during the 1970s, and most of the memorabilia – props, signs, costumes – was auctioned, taken as souvenirs or thoughtlessly thrown away.
The book overflows with rare black-and-white photos that transport readers behind the scenes. Especially fascinating is the acre-by-acre tour of the MGM sets and soundstages that were legendary in their day.



M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot.

Santa Monica. 2011. c.312p. photogs. bibliog. index. ISBN 9781595800558. $34.95. FILM

MGM backlot aerial photo. (Marc Wanamaker, Bison Archives)

For all aficionados of Hollywood’s golden age, when MGM was at the apex of U.S. film production, with stars like Clark Gable, Greta Garbo, and Judy Garland (to name just the Gs), this book is rewarding because it isn’t just another celebration of MGM’s luster. But it’s also a tearjerker. What was the most glorious back lot in film history is gone. The book’s final section, “Backlot Babylon,” narrates the studio’s postwar decline and its 1969 purchase by Kirk Kerkorian, whose top executive declared “The old MGM is gone,” and then bulldozed and sold off the back lots. Authors Bingen (Warner Brothers: The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of); Stephen X. Sylvester, who explored the MGM back lots before they were demolished and captured oral histories of many studio employees; and Michael Troyan (A Rose for Mrs. Miniver: The Life of Greer Garson), a film archives specialist, reveal the entire MGM infrastructure, including fascinating documentation (with hundreds of photographs) of the use and reuse of film sets across many years and genres. The oral histories of studio employees are treasures amid many in this revelation of all the workings behind that gloss. An appendix of “Films Shot on the Backlot” is invaluable. VERDICT Highly recommended to buffs and specialists alike; for all comprehensive film collections.—

Margaret Heilbrun, Library Journal


M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot.
Wall Street Journal review:
A Peek Inside the Dream Factory

A production number from "Rosalie" (1937).
Turner Entertainment Co./Warner Bros.













Turner Entertainment Co./Warner Bros.

One of the greatest surprises I ever received came on the day that a former student arranged for me to watch a rare 1932 movie in Louis B. Mayer's private screening room at MGM. For one glorious afternoon, I was transported back to Hollywood in its heyday, an experience I had never expected to repeat—that is, until I read "MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot," by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester and Michael Troyan. As Debbie Reynolds writes in her foreword: "Although the studio is gone, it lives on vividly in the pages of this remarkable and beautiful book." Both a fan's delight and a scholar's roadmap, "MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot" is stuffed with rare photos, production charts, studio maps, shooting schedules, budgets and insider quotes from both the famous and the not-so-famous who worked there.

Founded on April 18, 1924, MGM was the Rolls-Royce of the old Hollywood studios. On its streets walked, as the studio itself put it, "more stars than there are in the heavens": Clark Gable, Jean Harlow, Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Hepburn and Tracy, Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly, Judy Garland and Mickey Rooney, and many, many more. Its roster of movies contains some of the most enduring and award-winning films in history: "Grand Hotel," "Ben-Hur," "The Wizard of Oz," "National Velvet," "Mrs. Miniver," "The Philadelphia Story," "Singin' in the Rain" and dozens of others. For those who love old movies, MGM was a romantic Ruritania. For those skeptical of its overly long and sometimes sentimental movies, it was closer to Freedonia, a perfect subject for satire.

M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot
By Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester & Michael Troyan
Santa Monica Press, 312 pages, $34.95
.Love it or hate it, MGM is hardly ever thought of as simply a place where people worked to make a living. For most people, Hollywood is a concept, not a physical space, but Ms. Reynolds locates it in reality. She calls MGM "my hometown, my prep school, my university. . . . I grew up there. . . . I learned about friendship and responsibility there. I laughed and cried there." Messrs. Bingen, Sylvester and Troyan (a trio of archivist, writer and historian) present MGM as a concrete environment without losing the wonder and magic that were its product. "Our goal," they write, "was to preserve, in print and memory, if not in brick and mortar, the actual physical place that was once MGM."

The authors have put together "complete and accurate maps of each of the main MGM lots." Page by page, a reader can "walk" around MGM as it once was—a highly organized, efficient modern factory. The first thing that stands out is the sheer size of the place—more than 175 acres of prime real estate. A 1932 aerial-view map of Lot One has a list of all the buildings and departments it took to manufacture dreams: a purchasing department, spaces for accounting, payroll and insurance, a property building (with clocks of all types, lamps in all shapes and sizes, and enough weaponry to outfit a large army), a barbershop and newsstand, a water tower, a power plant, and a first-aid department.

By 1934, MGM had more than 4,000 employees, including 61 stars and feature players, 17 directors and 51 writers, all under exclusive contracts. By 1941, there were 178 people working in the costume building alone, overseeing 250,000 designs from almost every historical period. The Irving Thalberg Administration Building (built in 1937-38 as a tribute to its namesake, who died in 1936) was a white Art Deco edifice nicknamed "the iron lung" because of its early air-conditioning system. It had 235 offices. Mayer's was on the third floor, smack in the center, and above him, on the fourth, was a private gym, an executive dining room and a chiropractic office. Apparently it took a lot of aching backs to release 52 features per year.

Young stars Peggy Ann Garner, Elizabeth Taylor, Marshall Thompson, Jane Powell and Roddy McDowell gather in the commissary ice cream parlor in 1948.
.MGM had its own library and research department, which besides books and clippings had a supply of old Sears catalogs, menus from everywhere, 19th-century travel guides and esoterica such as specialized files on New York City manhole covers, World War II Quonset huts and French Foreign Legion caps. If you were an employee, you worked in a safe and gated environment (with a 50-man police force). You could eat good food at reasonable prices in the studio commissary ("MGM special chicken broth, $.50, with matzoh balls, $.60"). You labored within grounds that were beautifully landscaped and near special apartments for stars: The "first floor men" included Gable and William Powell. Your employer was financially secure. Every day a team of accountants kept track of the budget down to the last penny. "The Wizard of Oz" (1939) cost $2,796,230.30. It was clearly marked as "over budget" by $1,048,076.

The maps of MGM's famous sound stages and backlots (accompanied by lists of films shot on each) are particularly fascinating. "The Wizard of Oz" used Sound Stage No. 27 for Munchkin land. Esther Williams owned Stage No. 30, which had her swimming pool and underwater tanks. "The Thin Man" was shot entirely on Stage No. 9, and Joan Crawford ice-skated (on very thin ice) for "Ice Follies of 1939" on Stage No. 12.

A reproduction of the "Plan of Lot Number One" shows that MGM maintained a lake, a castle, New York streets, a French district, escarpment rocks, an Irish street, a small town, a Spanish hacienda, and much else, including, inexplicably, a cabbage patch. Lot No. 2, which F. Scott Fitzgerald said "under the moon" looked like "the backlot of 30 acres of fairyland," had a cemetery, Tarzan's jungle, Grand Central Station, a Southern mansion and one of MGM's most familiar sets, the home of Andy Hardy and his family. It was officially known as "the New England street" even though the Hardys lived in Ohio, and it was used by other movies, including Elvis Presley's 1957 "Jailhouse Rock."

The authors acknowledge assistance from film historians such as Kevin Brownlow, Leonard Maltin and Richard Schickel, as well as the staffs and archivists at Warner Bros. (the company that now controls most of the MGM material). "MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot" does not shirk the sad task of explaining clearly why the assets of MGM's proud legacy were eventually sold. The reasons for MGM's decline are complex and not easily summarized. They include bad management and the collapse of the Hollywood studio system.

The listings at the final auction in 1970 of what was once the most storied studio in Hollywood included "Star Wardrobes," "Antiques and Furniture," and an item that broke my heart: "one Magnificent Paddle Wheel Steamer" (the Cotton Blossom from the 1952 musical "Showboat"). Debbie Reynolds sums up the truth that everyone who loved all those great MGM movies has had to face: "Well, it's all gone now." Gone but not forgotten.

—Ms. Basinger is the author of "The Star Machine."


MGM: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot (Web Exclusive)
by Robert Cashill 

by Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester, and Michael Troyan.
California: Santa Monica Press, 2011. 312 pp., illus. Hardcover: $34.95






“From the Studio That Brought You Iron Man,” declares the poster for Thor. Hmm, what studio? Marvel? Except that’s not a studio. Disney owns it, so, Disney? No, actually, Paramount, due to deals that preceded the Marvel/Disney merger for those superhero franchises.

But, really—who cares? Studios generate balance sheets, not movie magic; little differentiates one from another. There’s nothing “Paramount” about either of these films. The tag line resonates with Viacom shareholders, not the general public.

M-G-M: Hollywood’s Greatest Backlot returns us to an era when audiences could tell the distributors apart, by the stars they had under their employ and the sorts of movies they specialized in. Dwarfing the other dream factories was Metro Goldwyn Mayer’s, and this handsome, plus-sized volume is unique—not another paean to its Golden Era glories but an exhaustive, and revealing, anatomy of its architecture and inner workings, with each of its buildings given a look-see. At its height MGM was as much a city-state as it was a production company. Told by Prince Rainier, husband of Grace Kelly, that Monaco was five square miles, producer Dore Schary exclaimed, “Jesus, that’s not even as big as our backlot.”

“Do it right…make it big…give it class!,” was the studio’s slogan, and where better to practice this philosophy than a multitude of controllable environments, which proved remarkably durable against the elements and the occasional earthquake.  Art director Cedric Gibbons was tasked with turning the large land purchases made by the front office into something, and it was he “who would find a look and physicality and for the MGM backlot—for backlots in general—and for the physical look of the 20th century.”

Needless to say much ground is (literally) covered by this book, a good deal of it in pictures that are a triumph of archival research. Especially delightful are photographs organized as progressions, where we see, for example, the Girl’s School on Lot Two age from a pristine, snow-covered campus for Elizabeth Taylor in Cynthia (1947) to a relic of a forgotten America in Logan’s Run (1976), by which time the MGM of Taylor’s day was also history. Until location shooting became more the norm (a factor that rang down the curtain on the backlot), we’re shown how the ten acres of New York streets were synonymous with the city itself in movies like Singin’ in the Rain (1952) and Blackboard Jungle (1955), complete with a three-sided house of worship that did triple duty for productions with Catholic, Jewish, or Protestant themes. The essential nature of the backlot was always transformation, so with redressing these streets also did shifts as Nazi Germany, India, and Red Square. In their ill-attended dotage, plagued with peeling brick, potholes, and other signs of neglect, dystopian fantasies returned them to a crumbling New York for the likes of Soylent Green (1973).


Though the authors are scholarly, unsentimental, and unfailingly entertaining in their analyses—this is a coffee-table book that merits reading as well as gazing—a strain of melancholy runs throughout, as the properties are amassed, developed, and discarded. They’re very good at going behind the facades, showcasing the ingenuity and beauty behind, say, Andy Hardy’s neighborhood (a cozy hamlet of false fronts, with no interiors) or the elaborate French sets for 1938’s Marie Antoinette, for which studio researchers spent a year in the country, sending back 12,000 photographs that Gibbons’ staff then “improved on” for film and recycled for numerous other movies. “Gibbons’s sets generally tended to be overlit, so as to show off their craftsmanship; whites, rather than shadow, tend to predominate…his 1930s Deco and later streamlined-Moderne stylings created, if not the actual look of an era itself, then certainly our later perceptions of what that era looked like.”


But the idealized world that Louis B. Mayer revered and Gibbons authored, its tasteful and conservative values embedded in the very walls of the sets—Gibbons, Elia Kazan said, was the most influential person on the lot after the owners—clashed with the realism and harder edges that audiences began to expect from the movies. In the last theatrical film shot in full on the backlot, the detective picture They Only Kill Their Masters (1972), one could argue that the masters being killed are Mayer and Gibbons—on its weather-beaten streets lot stalwarts like Peter Lawford and June Allyson are cast way against MGM type as crooks, drug dealers, and predatory lesbians. They’d toe the company line once more in the teary-eyed That’s Entertainment! movies, the last time audiences got a look at what was left of the once-mighty backlots.

Nostalgia, however, is only one facet of M-G-M: Hollywood’s Greatest Backlot, which, thanks to the wealth of photos and keen writing, is an excellent map to this vanished terrain, with a helpful index to what was shot where. (Andy Hardy/New England Street was also home to Jailhouse Rock, Some Came Running, and Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.) At a time when studios have to advertise their identities on the backs of superheroes, it’s also a potent reminder that it wasn’t just the stars who had faces then.—Robert Cashill

Robert Cashill, a member of the Online Film Critics Society, is a Cineaste Associate and the Film Editor of Popdose.com.

Copyright © 2011 by Cineaste Publishers, Inc


  Authors   Back to top




                                                          Steve Bingen

      Steve has long worked within the motion picture industry, both in production and as a writer and historian. He holds a staff position at Warner Bros. Corporate Archive – aiding in the preservation and management of the studios legend and legacy. Aptly enough, Steve also brings to our book an expertise in conducting studio tours, as he was in fact, years ago, a tour guide at Warner Bros. “one of the best jobs I ever had” he’s liable to tell you. Steve is the author of Warner Bros. The Stuff That Dreams Are Made Of and contributed to You Must Remember This: The Warner Bros. Story, In The Picture:Production Stills from the TCM Archives, Leading Couples, King Kong: The History of a Movie Icon, and the documentaries “1939: Hollywood’s Greatest Year,” “ Warner at War,” and “Thou Shalt Not: Sex, Sin and Censorship in Pre-Code Hollywood.” His numerous essays and magazine articles include recent pieces for “Mondo Cult” and “Perspective.” His screenplay “The Ghastly Love of Johnny X” is currently in production for director Paul Bunnell.

                                               Stephen X. Sylvester

      Alone among our trio of authors, Stephen was lucky enough to have explored MGM’s legendary backlots in 1968 and 1975. That experience was the genesis for this book and sparked a decades-long obsession which would ultimately lead to a collection of studio artifacts and to the accumulation of dozens of hours of oral histories and interviews with studio “survivors.” He is currently working on a documentary based on their shared backlot reminiscences. His other film projects include (as director-producer) “Robert Kinoshita: Dreams, Designs and Robots,” “Richard Anderson: An Actor’s Journey,” and “Gurdon W. Wattles: The Man and the Mansion.” From 1988 to 2008 Stephen was the Executive Director of the Wattles Mansion and Gardens, a Hollywood landmark and film location.

                                                     Michael Troyan

     Michael is a freelance writer and has worked as an archivist and consultant at two of Hollywood’s major studios. A lifelong fan of Hollywood’s classic films, he has parlayed that interest into a variety of books about MGM and The Walt Disney Studios as author, co-author, or contributor. His books include A Rose for Mrs. Miniver; the Life of Greer Garson, about M-G-M’s reigning Queen of the Lot in the 1940s and 1950s – which is enjoying its third printing and recently went into paperback. Mike has also contributed to Disney A-Z, The Disney Villains, and The Disney Poster Book. He lives in northern California.                    


      EVENTS   Back to top

50th Anniversary Affair

The Man from U.N.C.L.E television series

Stephen X. Sylvester will be giving a lecture and photo presentation on M-G-M Studios
celebrating the 50th anniversary of
The Man from U.N.C.L.E television series
September 26th & 27th, 2014.

For complete information visit: thegoldenanniversaryaffair.weebly.com

Author and Cinematographer to Discuss MGM Backlots at Next Culver City Historical Society Meeting
Stephen X. Sylvester, co-author of M-G-M Hollywood’s Greatest Backlot, and Academy award winning cinematographer Fred Koenekamp will share the spotlight at the next general meeting of Culver City Historical Society on Wednesday, April 16, 2014, at 7 p.m. in the Veterans Memorial Building’s multi-purpose room.

Sylvester will present a short film and a PowerPoint presentation illustrating the history of the soundstages and outdoor sets where Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer produced many of the world’s most famous films. The book features candid, exclusive voices and photographs from the people who worked there, and includes hundreds of rare and unpublished photographs. A signed copy ofthe book will be given away by drawing and all attendees will have a chance to win. You can also order his book through this link and bring it with you, and he’ll sign it after the presentation.Koenekamp, known for his camera work on Patton, The Man from U.N.C.L.E., Papillion, and The Towering Inferno, for which he won his Academy award, and many other fine films, will also share his memories of the MGM years.

There will be a brief discussion of upcoming programs and projects, as well as updates on the activities and exhibits in the Archives & Resource Center (ARC) which will be opened following the meeting. All members of the Culver City Historical Society and the public are welcome to enjoy this free program and students are encouraged to attend. The entrance to the multi-purpose room is through the back of the building near the parking lot, and through the Archive & Resource Center space.

The authors of "M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot" Steven Bingen, Stephen X. Sylvester and Michael Troyan will conduct a presentation on the book at
The Motion Picture Country Home on Saturday, September 15, 2012 @ 2 p.m.
23388 Mulholland Dr. Woodland Hills, CA

A Return to Classic Hollywood!

The authors of M-G-M: Hollywood’s Greatest Backlot will offer a presentation on the
M-G-M Studios to the members of the Art Directors Guild on Thursday,
September 13th at 7:00 PM, at the Guild (11969 Ventura Blvd., Studio City, CA 91604).

M-G-M: Hollywood’s Greatest Backlot (Santa Monica Press) by Steve Bingen,
Stephen X. Sylvester and Michael Troyan, covers the history of the fabled
M-G-M Studios from its triumphant beginning to its tragic final days. Through
text and ample photographs, the authors bring this glorious studio and its
two massive backlots to life.

It was at this studio that legendary Art Director Cedric Gibbons and his associates
had over 140 acres of sound stages, backlot sets and multiple technical
departments at their disposal to help bring the glorious films of M-G-M to the silver screen.
Gibbons 32 year career at M-G-M (1925-1960) resulted in 11 Oscars for
Art Direction with an additional 28 nominations.

Please join us at the Art Directors Guild as we celebrate the history of the
M-G-M Backlot and the Art Directors Guild’s 75th Anniversary.


The authors will be appearing at Cinecon 47
September 1-5, 2011 for a presentation and
book signing at the Renaissance Hollywood Hotel.
For complete information visit

The authors will be appearing at the Hollywood Heritage Museum
October 12, 2011 for a presentation and book signing.
For complete information visit

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Events: Book signing

M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Egyptian Theater
6712 Hollywood Blvd.
Hollywood, CA 90028-4605
(323) 466-3456

4:00 pm: a book signing of M-G-M: Hollywood's Greatest Backlot with authors

5:00 pm: a double feature screening of M-G-M films
"The Band Wagon" (1953) and "That's Entertainment" (1974)

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Santa Monica Barnes & Noble
1201 3rd Street Promenade
Santa Monica, CA
7 p.m.


Do you or anyone you know have any stories, photos, maps, films, home movies, brochures or anything else associated with the legendary M-G-M Studios in Culver City, California?
Is so, please contact us at: sxs@sbcglobal.net
Thank You


Take the M-G-M Quiz    Back to top

What was the title of the first film to use the set called “Dutch Street” on Lot 3? This set was designed to represent what American city in what state?

2. What was the name of the bar located on Washington Blvd. by the front entrance to Lot 1 where everything from studio business to studio gossip was discussed over cocktails?

3. What was the name of the future song and dance actress who appeared at the tender age of 14 months in the final scene of “In the Good Old Summertime” (1949)?

4. What were the names of the three Western themed streets of sets located on Lot 3?

5. What was the name of the 1920’s M-G-M contract player that had a successful career as interior decorator and designer in Beverly Hills?

6. What famous M-G-M star returned to the studio after a ten year absence in 1953?

7. What was the name of the dish that was always listed on the M-G-M commissary menu?

8. What M-G-M star remained under contract to the studio for the longest period of time?

9. What was the reported amount of Clark Gable’s annual salary in 1953?

10. Name the M-G-M employee of the studio Art Department that was responsible for the final design of Robby the Robot, created for the film “Forbidden Planet” (1955)?

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences  http://www.oscars.org   

Hollywood Heritage Inc. - http://hollywoodheritage.org

Marc Wanamaker - Bison Archives - http://www.bisonarchives.com

Richard Anderson - http://www.bionik.com  

Rod Taylor - http://www.rodtaylorsite.com

John Divola Photography - www.divola.com

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